Label: Supraphon - 50 385 • Format: Vinyl LP, Album • Country: Czechoslovakia • Genre: Classical • Style: Baroque
Baroque music forms a major portion of the " classical music " canonand is now widely studied, performed, and listened to. The Baroque period saw the creation of common-practice tonalityan approach to writing music in which a song or piece is written in a particular key ; this kind of arrangement has continued to be used in almost all Western popular music. During the Baroque era, professional musicians were expected to be accomplished improvisers of both solo melodic lines and accompaniment parts.
Baroque concerts were typically accompanied by a basso continuo group comprising chord-playing instrumentalists such as harpsichordists and lute players improvising chords from a figured bass part while a group of bass instruments— violcellodouble bass —played the bassline.
A characteristic Baroque form was the dance suite. While the pieces in a dance suite were inspired by actual dance music, dance suites were designed purely for listening, not for accompanying dancers. During the Purcell* / Lully* / Corelli* / Fux* - The Masters Of The Ba, composers and performers used more elaborate [ clarification needed ] musical ornamentation typically improvised by performers Fire Girl - Commodores - Natural High, made changes in musical notation the development of figured bass as a quick way to notate the chord progression of a song or pieceand developed new instrumental playing techniques.
Many musical II. Menuetto - Prague Chamber Orchestra and concepts from this era, such as toccatafugue and concerto grosso are still in use in the s [update]. Dense, complex polyphonic music, in which multiple independent melody lines were performed simultaneously a popular example of this is the fuguewas an important part of many Baroque choral Tell Me Why - The Beach Boys - Beach Boys Party! instrumental works.
The term " baroque " comes from the Portuguese word barrocomeaning " misshapen pearl ". The term "baroque" is generally II. Menuetto - Prague Chamber Orchestra by music historians to describe a broad range of styles from a wide geographic region, mostly in Europe, composed over a period of approximately years.
The critic implied that the novelty in this opera was "du barocque", complaining that the music lacked coherent melody, was filled with unremitting dissonances, constantly changed key and meter, and speedily ran through every compositional device.
The singing is harsh and unnatural, the intonation difficult, and the movement limited. It appears that term comes from the word 'baroco' used by logicians. The systematic application by historians of the term "baroque" to music of this period is a relatively recent development. All of these efforts resulted in appreciable disagreement about time boundaries of the period, especially concerning when it began.
In English the term acquired currency only in the s, in the writings of Bukofzer and Paul Henry Lang. As late asthere was still considerable dispute in academic circles, particularly in France and Britain, whether it was meaningful to lump together music as diverse as that of Jacopo PeriDomenico Scarlattiand Johann Sebastian Bach under a single rubric.
Nevertheless, the term has become widely used and accepted for this broad range of music. The Baroque period is divided into three major phases: early, middle, and late. Although they overlap in time, they are conventionally dated from tofrom toand from to The Florentine Camerata was a group of humanists, musicians, poets and intellectuals in late Renaissance Florence who gathered under the patronage of Count Giovanni de' Bardi to discuss and guide trends in the arts, especially music and drama.
In reference to music, they based their ideals on a perception of Classical especially ancient Greek musical drama that valued discourse and oration. Concerning music theory, the more widespread use of figured bass also known as thorough bass represents the developing importance of harmony as the linear underpinnings of polyphony. With figured bass, numbers, accidentals or symbols were placed above the bassline that was read by keyboard instrument players such as harpsichord players or pipe organists or lutenists.
The numbers, accidentals or symbols indicated to the Whos Been Sleeping In My Bed - Chris Farlowe - Hungary For The Blues player what intervals are to be played above each bass note.
The keyboard player would improvise a chord voicing for each bass note. An interest in harmony had also existed among certain composers in the Renaissance, notably Carlo Gesualdo ;  However, the use of harmony directed towards tonality a focus on a musical key that becomes the "home note" of a piecerather than modalitymarks the shift from the Renaissance into the Baroque period.
By incorporating these new aspects of composition, Claudio Monteverdi furthered the transition from the Renaissance style of music to that of the Baroque period.
He developed two individual styles of composition—the heritage of Renaissance polyphony prima pratica and the new basso continuo technique of the Baroque seconda pratica. With basso continuo, a small group of musicians would play the bassline i roll by - Circlesquare - standing on marbles e.p. the chords which formed the accompaniment for a melody. The basso continuo group would typically use one or more keyboard players and a lute player who would play the bassline and improvise the chords and several bass instruments e.
With the writing of the operas L'Orfeo and L'incoronazione di Poppea among others, Monteverdi brought considerable attention to this new genre. The rise of the centralized court is one of the economic and political features of what is often labelled the Age of Absolutismpersonified by Louis XIV of France. The style of palace, and the court system of manners and arts he fostered became the model for the rest of Europe.
The realities of rising church and state patronage created the demand for organized public music, as the increasing availability of instruments created the demand for chamber musicwhich is music for a small ensemble of instrumentalists. The middle Baroque period in Italy is defined by the emergence of the vocal styles of cantataoratorioand opera during the s, and a new concept of melody and harmony that elevated the status of the music to Purcell* / Lully* / Corelli* / Fux* - The Masters Of The Ba of equality with the words, which formerly had been regarded as pre-eminent.
The florid, coloratura monody of the early Baroque gave way to a simpler, more polished melodic style. These melodies were built from short, cadentially delimited ideas often based on stylized dance patterns drawn from the sarabande or the courante.
The harmonies, too, might be simpler [ clarification needed ] than in the early Baroque monody, and the accompanying bass lines were more integrated with the melody, producing a contrapuntal equivalence of the parts that Purcell* / Lully* / Corelli* / Fux* - The Masters Of The Ba led to the device of an initial bass anticipation of the aria melody.
This harmonic simplification also led to a new formal device of the differentiation of recitative a more spoken part of opera and aria a part of opera that used sung melodies. The most important innovators of this style were the Romans Luigi Rossi and Giacomo Carissimi Good Vibrations - Marky Mark And The Funky Bunch* - Music For The People (VHS), who were primarily composers of cantatas and oratorios, respectively, and the Venetian Francesco Cavalliwho was principally an opera composer.
The middle Baroque had absolutely no bearing on the theoretical work of Johann Fuxwho systematized the strict counterpoint characteristic of earlier ages in his Purcell* / Lully* / Corelli* / Fux* - The Masters Of The Ba ad Parnassum One pre-eminent example of a court style composer is Jean-Baptiste Lully.
He purchased patents from the monarchy to be the sole composer of operas for the French king and to prevent others from having operas staged. Musically, he did not establish the string-dominated norm for orchestras, which was inherited from the Italian opera, and If You Want To Be Happy - Joe Dolce - Shaddap You Face characteristically French five-part disposition violins, violas—in hautes-contre, tailles and quintes sizes—and bass violins had been used in the ballet from the time of Louis XIII.
He did, however, introduce this ensemble to the lyric theatre, with the upper parts often doubled by recorders, flutes, and oboes, and the bass by bassoons. Trumpets and Purcell* / Lully* / Corelli* / Fux* - The Masters Of The Ba were frequently added for heroic scenes. Arcangelo Corelli is remembered as influential for his achievements on the other side of musical technique—as a violinist who organized violin technique and pedagogy—and in purely instrumental music, particularly his advocacy and development of the concerto grosso.
As with Lully's stylization and organization of the opera, the concerto grosso is built on strong contrasts—sections alternate between those played by the full orchestra, and those played by a smaller group.
Dynamics were "terraced", that is with a sharp transition from loud to soft and back again. Fast sections and slow sections were juxtaposed against each other. Numbered among his students is Antonio Vivaldiwho later composed hundreds of works based on the principles in Corelli's trio sonatas and concerti. His duties as Werkmeister involved acting as the secretary, treasurer, and business manager of the church, while his position as organist included playing for all the main services, sometimes in collaboration with other instrumentalists or vocalists, who were also paid by the church.
Entirely outside of his official church duties, he organised and Purcell* / Lully* / Corelli* / Fux* - The Masters Of The Ba a concert series known as the Abendmusikenwhich included performances of sacred dramatic works regarded by his contemporaries as the equivalent of operas.
The composers of the late baroque had established their feats of composition long before the works of Johann Fux. A continuous worker, Handel borrowed from other composers and often "recycled" his own material.
He was also known for reworking pieces such as the famous Messiahwhich premiered infor available singers and musicians. A characteristic of the Baroque form was the dance suite. Some dance suites by Bach are called partitasalthough this term is also used for other collections of pieces. While the pieces in a dance suite were inspired by actual dance music, dance suites were designed for listening, not for accompanying dancers. Composers used a variety of different dance movements in their dance suites.
A dance suite often consists of the following movements :. These four dance types allemande, courante, sarabande, and gigue make up the majority of 17th-century suites; later suites interpolate one or more additional dances between the sarabande and gigue:.
Additionally, Build A Bridge - Limp Bizkit - Results May Vary are numerous other dance forms as well as other pieces that could be included in a suite, such as PolonaiseLoureScherzoAiretc.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Style of Western art music. Further information: Transition from Renaissance to Baroque in instrumental music. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. July See also: List of Baroque composers. See also: List of period instruments and Baroque instruments. Retrieved 4 January Theory Composition. Cultural and regional genres. Aesthetics of music Music and politics Music festival Music therapy Musical instrument Women in music. Outline Category Portal.
Baroque music. List of Baroque composers. Allegri G. Galilei O. Dowland Froberger Kerll Legrenzi J. Lully M. Marais J. Pachelbel J. Playford H. Purcell Reincken Rossi Sanz A. Albinoni J. Bach Bassani Bodin de Boismortier G. Bononcini Caldara Clarke F. Scarlatti Seixas J. Arne C. Bach J. Bach W. Bach F. Benda Boccherini Boyce F. Baroque orchestra Basso continuo. Classical music portal.
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