Label: Toby Arnold And Associates, Inc. - Disk 12 • Format: Vinyl LP • Country: US • Genre: Stage & Screen •
Electronic music is music that employs electronic musical instrumentsOrgan Grinders Swing - Hudson-DeLange Orchestra - Sophisticated Swing Of The Hudson Delange Orchestr instruments and circuitry-based music technology. In general, a distinction can be made between sound produced using electromechanical means electroacoustic musicand that produced using electronics only.
Examples of electromechanical sound producing devices include the telharmoniumHammond organand the electric guitarwhich are typically made loud enough for performers and audiences to hear with an instrument amplifier and speaker cabinet.
Pure electronic instruments do not have vibrating strings, hammers, or other sound-producing mechanisms. Devices such as the thereminsynthesizerand computer can produce electronic sounds. The first electronic devices for performing music were developed at the end of the 19th century, and shortly afterward Italian futurists explored sounds that had not been considered musical.
During the s and s, electronic instruments were introduced and the first compositions for electronic instruments were made. By the s, magnetic audio tape allowed musicians to tape sounds and then modify them by changing the tape speed or direction, leading to the development of electroacoustic tape music in the The Sheik Of Araby - Art Tatum - Piano Genius, in Egypt and France.
Music produced solely from electronic generators was first produced in Germany in Electronic music was also created in Japan and the United States beginning in the s.
An important new development was the advent of computers to compose music. In the s, live electronics were pioneered in America and Europe, Japanese electronic musical instruments began influencing the music industryand Jamaican dub music emerged as a form of popular electronic music. In the early s, the monophonic Minimoog synthesizer and Japanese drum machines helped popularize synthesized electronic music. In the s, electronic music began having a significant influence on popular musicwith the adoption of polyphonic synthesizerselectronic drumsdrum machines, and turntablesthrough the emergence of genres such as discokrautrocknew wavesynth-pophip hop and EDM.
In the s, electronic music became more dominant in popular music, with a greater reliance on synthesizers, and the adoption of programmable drum machines such as the Roland TR and bass synthesizers such as the TB In the early s, digital technologies for synthesizers including digital synthesizers such as the Yamaha DX7 were popularized, and a group of musicians and music merchants developed the Musical Instrument Digital Interface MIDI.
Electronically produced music became prevalent in the popular domain by the s, because of the advent of affordable music technology. At the turn of the 20th century, experimentation with emerging electronics led to the first electronic musical instruments. The audiences were presented with reproductions of existing music instead of new compositions for the instruments.
It achieved viable public interest and made commercial progress into streaming music through telephone networks. Critics of musical conventions at the time saw promise in these developments.
Ferruccio Busoni encouraged the composition of microtonal music allowed for by electronic instruments. He predicted the use of machines in future music, writing the influential Sketch of a New Esthetic of Music. They predicted expansions in timbre allowed for by electronics in the influential manifesto The Art of Noises. Developments of the vacuum tube led to electronic instruments that were smaller, amplifiedand more practical for performance.
From the late s, the increased practicality of electronic instruments influenced composers such as Joseph Schillinger to adopt them. They were typically used within orchestrasand most composers wrote parts for the theremin that could otherwise be performed with string instruments. Avant-garde composers criticized the predominant use of electronic instruments for conventional purposes.
Developments in early recording technology paralleled that of electronic instruments. The first means of recording and reproducing audio was invented in the late 19th century Inattività Attiva - Filippo Giuffrè - Eclectic Guitar Solo the mechanical phonograph.
The introduction of electrical recording in was followed by increased experimentation with record players. Paul Hindemith and Ernst Toch composed several pieces in by layering recordings of instruments and vocals at adjusted speeds. Concurrently, composers began to experiment with newly developed sound-on-film technology. Further, the technology allowed sound to be graphically created and modified.
These techniques were used to compose soundtracks for several films in Germany and Russia, in addition to the popular Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde in the United States. Experiments with graphical sound were continued by Norman McLaren from the late s.
The first practical audio tape recorder was unveiled in Inprior to the use of magnetic tape for compositional purposes, Egyptian composer Halim El-Dabhwhile still a student in Cairoused a cumbersome wire recorder to record sounds of an ancient zaar ceremony. Using facilities at the Middle East Radio studios El-Dabh processed the recorded material using reverberation, echo, voltage controls, and re-recording.
What resulted is believed to be the earliest tape music composition. While his initial experiments in tape-based composition were not Take Me To The Water - Nina Simone - The Jazz Essentials known outside of Egypt at the time, El-Dabh is also known for his later work in electronic music at the Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center in the late s.
In the late s, experiments in sound based composition using shellac record players were first conducted by Schaeffer. Inthe techniques of musique concrete were expanded when magnetic tape machines were used to explore sound manipulation practices such as speed variation pitch shift and tape splicing Palombini Schaeffer employed a disk-cutting lathefour turntables, a four-channel mixer, filters, an echo chamber, and a mobile recording unit.
Not long after Girls, Girls, Girls - Various - Die Besten Hits Der 70er, Pierre Henry began collaborating with Schaeffer, a partnership that would have profound and lasting effects on the direction of electronic music. The tape parts were created at Pierre Schaeffer's studio, and were later revised at Columbia University.
The performance did not go well, as creating live montages with turntables had never been done before. In Paris inin what was to become an important worldwide trend, RTF established the first studio for the production of electronic music. Also inSchaeffer and Henry produced an opera, Orpheusfor concrete sounds and voices.
In Cologne, what would become the most famous electronic music studio in the world was officially opened at the radio studios of the NWDR inthough it had been in the planning stages as early as and early compositions were made and broadcast in The earliest group of electronic musical instruments in Japan, Yamaha Magna Organ was built in however after the World War II, Japanese composers such as Minao Shibata knew of the development of electronic musical instruments.
By the late s, Japanese composers began experimenting with electronic music and institutional sponsorship enabled them to experiment with advanced equipment. Their infusion of Asian music into the emerging genre would eventually support Japan's popularity in the development of music technology several decades later. Following the foundation of electronics company Sony in Delay - Kate Miller-Heidke - Little Eve, composers Toru Takemitsu and Minao Shibata independently explored possible uses for electronic technology to produce music.
The company hired Toru Takemitsu to Its Like That - Handsome Boy Modeling School - White People their tape recorders with compositions and performances of electronic tape music. They also held concerts employing a slide show synchronized with a recorded soundtrack.
Fromhe composed tape music pieces for a comedy film, a radio broadcast, and a radio drama. The NHK Studio was equipped with technologies such as tone-generating and audio processing equipment, recording and radiophonic equipment, ondes Martenot, Monochord and Melochordsine-wave oscillatorstape recorders, ring modulatorsband-pass filtersand four- and eight-channel mixers. Cage composed five more "Imaginary Landscapes" between and one withdrawnmostly for percussion ensemble, though No.
According to Otto Luening, Cage also performed a William [ sic ] Mix at Donaueschingen inusing eight loudspeakers, three years after his alleged collaboration.
Cage wrote of this collaboration: "In this social darkness, therefore, the work of Earle Brown, Morton Feldman, and Christian Wolff continues to present a brilliant light, for the reason that at the several points Mandolin Wind - Rod Stewart - The Best Of Rod Stewart Vol. 2 notation, performance, and Moog With Big Rhythm - Unknown Artist - The Production Master!
Production Music: Electronic , action is provocative. In the same year Columbia University purchased its Moog With Big Rhythm - Unknown Artist - The Production Master! Production Music: Electronic tape recorder—a professional Ampex machine—for the purpose of recording concerts. Vladimir Ussachevskywho was on the music faculty of Columbia University, was placed in charge of the device, and almost immediately began experimenting with it.
Herbert Russcol writes: "Soon he Moog With Big Rhythm - Unknown Artist - The Production Master! Production Music: Electronic intrigued with the new sonorities he could achieve by recording musical instruments and then superimposing them on one another. In an interview, he stated: "I presented a few examples of my discovery in a public concert in New York together with other compositions I had written for conventional instruments.
Other equipment was borrowed or purchased with personal funds. Just three months later, in AugustUssachevsky traveled to Bennington, Vermont at Luening's invitation to present his experiments. There, the two collaborated on various pieces. Luening described the event: "Equipped with earphones and a flute, I began developing my Moog With Big Rhythm - Unknown Artist - The Production Master!
Production Music: Electronic tape-recorder composition. Both of us were fluent improvisors and the medium fired our imaginations. Word quickly reached New York City. Oliver Daniel telephoned and invited the pair to "produce a group of short compositions for the October concert sponsored by the American Composers Alliance and Broadcast Music, Inc. After some hesitation, we agreed.
Henry Cowell placed his home and studio in Woodstock, New York, at our disposal. With the borrowed equipment in the back of Ussachevsky's car, we left Bennington for Woodstock and stayed two weeks.
In late September,the travelling laboratory reached Ussachevsky's living room in New York, where we eventually completed the compositions. The Yours Is No Disgrace - Yes & Friends* - Yes & Friends (Owner Of A Lonely Heart) included Luening's Fantasy in Space —"an impressionistic virtuoso piece"  using manipulated recordings of flute—and Low Speedan "exotic composition that took the flute far below its natural range.
After several concerts caused a sensation in New York City, Ussachevsky and Luening were invited onto a live broadcast of NBC's Today Show to do an interview demonstration—the first televised electroacoustic performance. Luening described the event: "I improvised some [flute] sequences for the tape recorder.
Ussachevsky then and there put them through electronic transformations. InStockhausen composed his Elektronische Studie II —the first Moog With Big Rhythm - Unknown Artist - The Production Master! Production Music: Electronic piece to be published as a score. Inmore experimental and electronic studios began to appear. The score for Forbidden Planetby Louis and Bebe Barron was entirely composed using custom built electronic circuits and tape recorders in In it publicly played the Colonel Bogey Marchof which no known recordings exist, only the accurate reconstruction.
The oldest known recordings of computer-generated music were played by the Ferranti Mark 1 computer, a commercial version of the Baby Machine from the University of Manchester in the autumn of The impact of computers continued in Lejaren Hiller and Leonard Isaacson composed Illiac Suite for string quartetthe first complete work of computer-assisted composition using 3 Juni - Rudi Moser - Moser composition.
Hiller postulated that a computer could be taught the rules of a particular style and then called on to compose accordingly. Vocoder technology was also a major development in this early era. An important technological development of that year was the invention of the Clavivox synthesizer by Raymond Scott with subassembly by Robert Moog.
The work was realized at the WDR studio in Cologne. Two musicians performed on a piano, one in the traditional manner, the other playing on the strings, frame, and case. Two other performers used tape to unite the presentation of live sounds with the future of prerecorded materials from later on and its past of recordings made earlier in the performance. These were fertile years for electronic music—not just for academia, but for independent artists as synthesizer technology became more accessible.
By this time, a strong community of composers and musicians working with new sounds and instruments was established and growing. This piece existed in two versions—one for 4-channel tape, and the other for tape with human performers. This new approach, which he termed 'moment form,' resembles the 'cinematic splice' techniques in early twentieth century film.
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