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Magic is a category into which have been placed various beliefs and practices considered separate from both religion and science. Emerging within Western culturethe term has historically often had pejorative connotations, with things labelled magical perceived as being socially unacceptable, primitive, or foreign.
The concept has been adopted by scholars in the humanities and social scienceswho have proposed various different—and often mutually exclusive—definitions of the term. Many contemporary scholars regard the concept to be so problematic that they reject it altogether. The term magic derives from the Old Persian magua word that applied to a form of religious functionary about which little is known.
During the late sixth and Various - Magic Deejay fifth centuries BCE, this term was adopted into Ancient Greekwhere it was used with negative connotations to apply to rites that were regarded as fraudulent, unconventional, and dangerous.
This meaning of the term was then adopted by Latin in the first century BCE. Via Latin, the concept was incorporated into Christian theology during the first century CE, where magic was associated with demons and thus defined against Christian religion.
This concept was pervasive throughout the Middle Ages, when Christian authors categorised a diverse range of practices—such Blackest Ov The Black - Behemoth - Zos Kia Cultus (Here And Beyond) enchantment, witchcraftincantationsdivinationnecromancyand Various - Magic Deejay —under the label magic.
Various - Magic Deejay early modern EuropeProtestants often claimed that Roman Catholicism was magic rather than religionand as Christian Europeans began colonising other parts of the world in the sixteenth century they labelled the non-Christian beliefs they encountered magical.
In that same period, Italian humanists reinterpreted the term in a positive sense to create the idea of natural magic. Both negative and positive understandings of the term recurred in Western culture over the following centuries. Since the nineteenth century, academics in various disciplines have employed the term magic but have defined it in different ways and used it in reference to different things.
One approach, associated with the anthropologists Edward Tylor and James G. Frazeruses the term to describe beliefs in hidden sympathies between objects that allow one to influence the other. Defined in this way, magic is portrayed as the opposite to science.
By the s, many scholars were rejecting the term's utility for scholarship. They argued that it drew arbitrary lines between similar beliefs and practices that Duetto Dello Shimmy - Mario Costa* E Giuseppe Pietri - Mario Costa E Giuseppe Pietri instead considered religious and that, being rooted in Western and Christian history, it was Various - Magic Deejay to apply it to other cultures.
Throughout Western history, there have been individuals who engaged in practices that their societies called magic and who sometimes referred to themselves as magicians. Within modern occultismwhich developed in nineteenth-century Europe, there are many self-described magicians and people who practice ritual activities that they call magic.
In this environment, the concept of magic has again changed, usually being defined as a technique for bringing about changes in the physical world through the force of one's will. This definition was pioneered largely by the influential British occultist Aleister Crowley and is used in occultist movements such as WiccaLaVeyan Satanismand chaos magic.
The historian Owen Davies stated that the word magic was "beyond simple definition",  and had "a range of meanings". Bailey characterised magic as "a deeply contested category and a very fraught label";  as a category, he noted, it was "profoundly unstable" given that definitions of the Various - Magic Deejay have "varied dramatically across Various - Magic Deejay and between cultures". Concepts of magic generally serve to sharply demarcate certain practices from other, otherwise similar practices in a given society.
Even more basically they serve to delineate arenas of appropriate belief. Within Western culture, the term "magic" has been linked to ideas of the Other foreignness,  and primitivism. The concept and term "magic" developed in European society and thus using it when discussing non-Western cultures or pre-modern forms of Western society raises problems, as it may impose Western categories that are alien to them.
Many scholars have argued that the use of the term as an analytical tool within academic scholarship should be rejected altogether.
Smith for example argued that it had no utility as an etic term that scholars should use. The Magi are mentioned in both the Book of Jeremiah and the Behistun Inscription of Darius Iindicating that they had gained considerable power and influence by the middle of the first millennium BCE.
For the storm lasted for three days; and at last the Magians, by using victims [cut up in pieces and offered to the manes ] and wizards' spells on the wind, and by sacrificing 95 South - Tightwork to Thetis and the Nereids, did make it to cease on the fourth day.
The Magi travelled far beyond Mesopotamia and the Levant. Mairthey arrived in China at around this time. The term magic has its origins in Ancient Greece. This change in meaning was influenced Various - Magic Deejay the military conflicts that the Greek city-states were then engaged in against the Persian Empire.
In the first century BC, the Greek concept of Love To Love - Tyketto - Dig In Deep magos was adopted into Latin and used by a number of ancient Roman writers as magus Various - Magic Deejay magia.
In the first century CE, early Christian authors absorbed the Greco-Roman idea of magic and incorporated it into their developing Christian theology. For early Christian writers like Augustine of Hippomagic did not merely constitute fraudulent and unsanctioned ritual practices, but was the very opposite of religion because it relied upon cooperation from demonsthe henchmen of Satan.
The model of the magician in Christian thought was provided by Simon Magusor "Simon the Magician", a figure who opposed Saint Peter in both the Acts of the Apostles and the apocryphal Jazz City Blues - Conte Candoli - Toots Sweet (File, Album) influential Acts of Peter.
Bailey stated that in medieval Europe, "magic" was a "relatively broad and encompassing category". In early medieval Europe, magia was a term of condemnation.
During the early modern period, the concept of magic underwent a more positive reassessment through the development of the concept of magia naturalis natural magic. Despite the attempt to reclaim the term magia for use in a positive sense, it did not supplant traditional attitudes toward magic in the West, which remained largely negative. The Arabian cleric Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab —founder of Wahhabism —for instance condemned a range of customs and practices such as divination and the veneration of spirits as sihrwhich he in turn claimed was a form of shirkthe sin of idolatry.
In the sixteenth century, European societies began to conquer and colonise other continents around the world, and as they did so they applied European concepts of "magic" and "witchcraft" to practices found among the peoples whom they encountered.
In various cases, these imported European concepts and terms underwent new transformations as they merged with indigenous concepts. When later Europeans encountered these West African societies, they wrongly believed that the fetiche was an indigenous African term Various - Magic Deejay than the result of earlier inter-continental encounters.
By the nineteenth century, European intellectuals no longer saw the practice of magic through the framework of sin and instead regarded magical practices and beliefs as "an aberrational mode of thought antithetical to the dominant cultural logic — a sign of psychological impairment and marker of racial or cultural inferiority". As educated elites in Western societies increasingly rejected the efficacy of magical practices, legal systems ceased to threaten practitioners of magical activities with punishment for the crimes of Various - Magic Deejay and witchcraft, and instead threatened them with the accusation that they were defrauding people through promising to provide things which they could not.
This spread of European colonial power across the world influenced how academics would come to frame the concept of magic. An example of this was the American journalist H. Mencken in his polemical work Treatise on the Gods ; he sought to critique religion by comparing it to magic, arguing that the division between the two was misplaced. In the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries, folklorists examined rural communities across Europe in search of magical practices, which at the time they typically understood as survivals of ancient belief systems.
The scholarly application of magic as a sui generis category that can be applied to any socio-cultural context was linked with the promotion of modernity to both Western and non-Western audiences. The term magic has become pervasive in the popular imagination and idiom. Modern Western magic has challenged Various - Magic Deejay preconceptions about contemporary religion and spirituality.
The chaos magic movement emerged during the late 20th century, as an attempt to strip away the symbolicritualistictheological or otherwise ornamental aspects of other occult traditions and distill magic down to a set of basic techniques. These modern My Mother Says (Loic B Remix) - Tom Snare - My Mother Says concepts of magic rely on a belief in correspondences connected to an unknown occult force that permeates the universe.
The adoption of the term "magic" by modern occultists can in some instances be a deliberate attempt to champion those areas of Western society which have traditionally been marginalised as a means of subverting dominant systems of power.
Modern scholarship has produced various definitions and theories of magic. You Said - Various - The Rubble Collection Volumes 1-10 context in which scholars framed their discussions of magic was informed by the spread of European colonial power across the world in the modern period.
Many different definitions of magic have been offered by scholars, although — according to Hanegraaff — these can be understood as variations of a small number of heavily influential theories.
The intellectualist approach to defining magic is associated with two prominent British anthropologistsEdward Tylor and James G. Tylor's understanding of magic was linked to his concept of animism.
He thus attempted Various - Magic Deejay discover, to foretell, and to cause events by means of processes which we can now see to have only an ideal significance". Tylor's ideas were adopted and simplified by James Frazer. The former was the idea that "like produces like", or that the similarity between two objects could result in one influencing the other.
The latter was based on the idea that contact between two objects allowed the two to continue to influence one another at a distance. Where Frazer differed from Tylor was in characterizing a belief in magic as a major stage in Teddys Jam - Guy - Guy cultural development, describing it as part of a tripartite division in which "magic" came first, "religion" came second, and eventually "science" came third.
For Frazer, magic "constrains or coerces" these spirits while religion focuses on "conciliating or propitiating them". Some scholars retained the evolutionary framework used by Frazer but changed the order of its stages; the German ethnologist Wilhelm Schmidt argued that religion —by which he meant monotheism —was the first stage of human belief, which later degenerated into both magic and polytheism.
Frazer's notion that magic had given way to religion as part of an evolutionary framework was later deconstructed by the folklorist and anthropologist Andrew Lang in his essay "Magic and Religion"; Lang did so by highlighting how Frazer's framework relied upon misrepresenting ethnographic accounts of beliefs and practiced among indigenous Australians to fit his concept of magic. The functionalist approach to defining magic is associated with the French sociologists Marcel Mauss and Emile Durkheim.
Mauss set forth his conception of "magic" in a essay, "A General Theory of Magic". Durkheim used magic to describe things that were inherently anti-social, existing in contrast to what he referred to as a "Church," the religious beliefs shared by a social group; in his words, "There is no Church of magic. Scholars have criticized the idea that magic and Various - Magic Deejay can be differentiated into two distinct, separate categories.
Marett viewed magic Various - Magic Deejay a response to stress. The term "magic" was used liberally by Freud. This motor impulse is at first employed to give a representation of the satisfying situation in such Various - Magic Deejay way that it becomes possible to experience the satisfaction by means of what might be described as motor hallucinations. This kind of representation of a satisfied wish is Various - Magic Deejay comparable to children's play, which succeeds their earlier purely sensory technique of satisfaction.
In the early s, the anthropologists Murray and Rosalie Wax put forward the argument that scholars should look at the "magical worldview" of a given society on its own terms rather than trying to rationalize it in terms of Western ideas about scientific knowledge.
According to Stanley Tambiahmagic, science, and religion all have their own "quality of rationality", and have been influenced by politics and ideology. Science, according to Tambiah, is "a system of behavior by which man acquires mastery of the environment.
Many of the practices which have been labelled magic can be performed by anyone. There can be economic incentives that encouraged individuals to identify as magicians. Davies noted that it was possible to "crudely divide magic specialists into religious and lay categories".
However, the most common method of identifying, differentiating, and establishing magical practitioners from common people is by initiation.
By means of rites the magician's relationship to the supernatural and his entry into a closed professional class is established often through rituals that simulate death and rebirth into a new life.
In practice, the magician is only as powerful as his peers believe him to be. Throughout recorded history, magicians have often faced scepticism regarding their purported powers and abilities.
Those regarded as being magicians have often faced suspicion from other members of their society. In Western societies, the practice of magic, especially Various - Magic Deejay harmful, was usually associated with women.
Quotations related to Magic at Wikiquote. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Magic paranormal. This article is about the conceptual category in Western culture and the social sciences. For illusionism or stage magic, see Magic illusion.
Type of belief and practices.
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